Low alloy steel welded pipes buried in the ground were sent for failure analysis investigation. Failure of steel pipes was not caused by tensile ductile overload but resulted from low ductility fracture in the area of the weld, that also contains multiple intergranular secondary cracks. The failure is most probably associated with intergranular cracking initiating from the outer surface within the weld heat affected zone and propagated through the wall thickness. Random surface cracks or folds were found around the pipe. In some instances cracks are emanating from the tip of such discontinuities. Chemical analysis, visual inspection, optical microscopy and SEM/EDS analysis were utilized as the principal analytical approaches for the failure investigation.
Low ductility fracture of HDPE pipe fittings during service. ? Investigation of failure mechanism using macro- and microfractography. Metallographic evaluation of transverse sections close to the fracture area. ? Evidence of multiple secondary cracks in the HAZ area following intergranular mode. ? Presence of Zn in the interior in the cracks manifested that HAZ sensitization and cracking occurred prior to galvanizing process.
Galvanized steel tubes are employed in lots of outdoors and indoors application, including hydraulic installations for central heating units, water supply for domestic and industrial use. Seamed galvanized tubes are fabricated by low alloy steel strip as being a raw material accompanied by resistance welding and hot dip galvanizing as the best manufacturing process route. Welded pipes were produced using resistance self-welding in the steel plate by applying constant contact pressure for current flow. Successive pickling was realized in diluted HCl acid bath. Rinsing of the welded tube in degreasing and pickling baths for surface cleaning and activation is necessary prior to hot dip galvanizing. Hot dip galvanizing is performed in molten Zn bath with a temperature of 450-500 °C approximately.
A series of failures of HDPE pipe fittings occurred after short-service period (approximately 1 year right after the installation) have led to leakage along with a costly repair from the installation, were submitted for root-cause investigation. The subject of the failure concerned underground (buried within the earth-soil) pipes while plain tap water was flowing within the tubes. Loading was typical for domestic pipelines working under low internal pressure of a few number of bars. Cracking followed a longitudinal direction plus it was noticed in the weld zone area, while no macroscopic plastic deformation (“swelling”) was observed. Failures occurred to isolated cases, without any other similar failures were reported inside the same batch. Microstructural examination and fractographic evaluation using optical and scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were mainly utilized in the context of the present evaluation.
Various welded component failures related to fusion and/or heat affected zone (HAZ) weaknesses, such as hot and cold cracking, absence of penetration, lamellar tearing, slag entrapment, solidification cracking, gas porosity, etc. are reported within the relevant literature. Absence of fusion/penetration leads to local peak stress conditions compromising the structural integrity from the assembly at the joint area, while the presence of weld porosity brings about serious weakness of the fusion zone , . Joining parameters and metal cleanliness are thought as critical factors towards the structural integrity of the welded structures.
Chemical research into the fractured components was performed using standard optical emission spectrometry (OES). Low-magnification inspection of surface and fracture morphology was performed using a Nikon SMZ 1500 stereomicroscope. Microstructural and morphological characterization was conducted in mounted cross-sections. Wet grinding was performed using successive abrasive SiC papers as much as #1200 grit, followed by fine polishing using diamond and silica suspensions. Microstructural observations performed after immersion etching in Nital 2% solution (2% nitric acid in ethanol) followed by ethanol cleaning and heat-stream drying.
Metallographic evaluation was performed utilizing a Nikon Epiphot 300 inverted metallurgical microscope. Additionally, high magnification observations of the microstructure and fracture topography were conducted to ultrasonically cleaned specimens, using a FEI XL40 SFEG scanning electron microscope using secondary electron and back-scattered imaging modes for topographic and compositional evaluation. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy utilizing an EDAX detector was used to gold sputtered samples for qfsnvy elemental chemical analysis.
An agent sample from failed steel pipes was submitted for investigation. Both pipes experience macroscopically identical failure patterns. A characteristic macrograph of the representative fractured pipe (27 mm outer diameter × 3 mm wall thickness) is shown in Fig. 1. Because it is evident, crack is propagated to the longitudinal direction showing a straight pattern with linear steps. The crack progressed adjacent to the weld zone from the weld, most probably after the heat affected zone (HAZ). Transverse sectioning from the tube ended in opening of the from the wall crack and exposure from the fracture surfaces. Microfractographic investigation performed under SEM using backscattered electron imaging revealed a “molten” layer surface morphology which was caused by the deep penetration and surface wetting by zinc, as it was identified by PERT-AL-PERT pipe analysis. Zinc oxide or hydroxide was formed because of the exposure of zinc-coated cracked face to the working environment and humidity. The aforementioned findings and the detection of zinc oxide on the on the fracture surface suggest strongly that cracking occurred before galvanizing process while no static tensile overload during service may be viewed as the primary failure mechanism.